What damage has been done to Libya’s cultural heritage and why should we protect it? The British Council’s Tony Calderbank finds out. Septimius, the African emperor, was himself a Libyan, hailing from Leptis Magna. One of the great cities of the ancient world, Leptis Magna was surrounded by fertile olive groves and vineyards, whose oil and wine were famous across the empire. Libya was also a major centre of early Christianity. Foreign influences have blended with local cultures, making the architecture of cities like Leptis and Sabratha unique.
Culture of Libya
Libya is a North African country on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. It is a country largely made up of desert, with a long and rich history. The northern coast is adorned with beautiful stretches of tropical beach. The best time to visit Libya is in the autumn or spring, when the coldness of the winter nights has gone but the cooling breeze from the sea moderates the powerful African heat.
Libya became an independent state in
Russian officials have hailed “progress,” although Libyan warlord Haftar month but a date has yet to be set, according to German government.
The rock-art sites of Tadrart Acacus are found in a vast area of desert landscape around and mostly to the north of the town of Ghat in south-western Libya. The Acacus was included on the World Heritage List only based on criterion III: an exceptional testimony to a series of civilizations which have disappeared. Whilst the Algerian Tassili appears now to be incorporated in a list of mixed sites, this has not happened for the listed territories of Libya.
University of Cambridge. Tadrart Acacus has thousands of cave paintings in very different styles, dating from 12, BC to AD , bearing traces of the different phases of the Palaeolithic. For example, in Wadi Tashwinat there is anintricate network of caves, which provided shelter for prehistoric people for thousands of years. In Wadi Tanshalt there issome of the best rock art in the southern parts of Acacus, with cenes of cows, stylised human figures, and ancient Tuareg Tifinagh inscriptions.
The site also includes the Murzuch desert, which bears traces of the different phases of the Palaeolithic. Although this area is one of the most arid of the Sahara, there is vegetation, such as the medicinal Calotropis procera. The Acacus Mountains have a large variation of landscapes, from differently coloured sanddunes to arches, gorges, isolated rocks and deep ravines wadis.
15 things you should know about Libyans
Leo Frobenius in the Libyan Desert.
The Essential Guide to Customs & Culture New edition by Roger Jones, Culture We’ll e-mail you with an estimated delivery date as soon as we have more.
Yet, this is the first bibliometric study to date to analyze and provide an in-depth discussion of the biomedical research productivity from Libyan academic institutions. The biomedical research productivity of higher education institutes and affiliated hospitals from Libya, with a focus on the higher education sector, was analyzed and discussed for the period of —13 using the PubMed database. A questionnaire online survey was also developed to obtain opinions of Libyan scientists on productivity status and quality of research output.
Information along with accurate, comprehensive, and transparent metrics can be applied to aid governmental and nongovernmental institutions to develop stable infrastructures for academic communities to achieve effective research performance and innovation. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.
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Libya country profile
Festivals are large celebrations with plenty of food, drinks, dance and music. In one ancient Egyptian festival in the 12th century BC, over 11, loaves of bread and nearly jars of beer were made available to the public. Original festivals and feasts were part of a larger ritual belief, largely determined by lunar or solar cycles, in relation to natural seasons. When grains germinate and produce more grains, year after year, humans thankfully reacted with owe and admiration in order to guarantee the following harvest.
The most important legislation to date that relates to women’s status is the A. Obeidi, Political Culture in Libya (Richmond, Surrey, UK: Curzon.
Explore it here. Abdul Elgadi was a mechanical engineer living in the northern Libyan city of Al Zawiri when the revolution began in He is now head of the Libyan Center for Rights and Freedoms , a non-governmental organization focused on training human rights activists to monitor violations against human rights in Libya. He is also a member of the Prisons Committee, a consortium of civil society organizations dedicated to improving detention conditions and ensuring the oversight of prisons by the state.
There was a high level of torture and cases of death under torture. The prisons were being run and managed by the families of martyrs of the revolution, or by people who had been victims of persecution under the Gaddafi regime. It was a mentality of revenge dominating, not just a mentality of detention. When the revolution started in February of , we envisioned a future utopia, a perfect country where there would be human rights, where everything would become very beautiful, very balanced, where everything would be just fine.
There was one brigade that was run by a family who had lost six martyrs. These six were aged between twenty-two and twenty-five. Two of them were brothers and the rest were cousins. You can imagine what happened when a family like this with a mentality of revenge was in charge of running a prison.
Conventions – Libya
Enter your mobile number or email address below and we’ll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer – no Kindle device required. To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. After graduating in modern languages from King s College, London University, he worked in education for extended periods in several different countries, including Libya.
He has written fifteen specialist handbooks on planning to live and work abroad and is the author of Culture Smart! Thailand in this series.
Libya, a mostly desert and oil-rich country with an ancient history, has more recently been known for the year rule of the mercurial Colonel Muammar Gaddafi.
The social setting of the family significantly affects the circumstances of a wife. Until the discovery of petroleum–and to a lesser degree until the revolution–conservative attitudes and values about women dominated society. By the s, however, modifications in the traditional relationship between the sexes were becoming evident, and important changes were appearing in the traditional role of women.
These varied with the age, education, and place of residence of the women. In traditional society, beduin women–who did not wear the veil that symbolized the inferior and secluded status of women–played a relatively open part in tribal life. Women in villages also frequently were unveiled and participated more actively in the affairs of their community than did their urban counterparts.
Their relative freedom, however, did not ordinarily permit their exposure to outsiders. A sociologist visiting a large oasis village as recently as the late s told of being unable to see the women of the community and of being forced to canvass their opinions by means of messages passed by their husbands. The extent to which the community was changing, however, was indicated by the considerable number of girls in secondary school and the ability of young women to find modern-sector jobs–opportunities that had come into being only during the s.
Urban women tended to be more sophisticated and socially aware, but they were also more conservative in social relations and dress. For example, unlike rural women, who moved freely in the fields and villages, urban women walked in the street discreetly in veiled pairs, avoiding public gathering places as well as social contact with men.
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With tribal structures having defined much of Libyan society, mixed marriages have never had an easy time. Tribal young women were reserved in advance for their male cousins. If a male cousin did not want to marry his cousin however, she could marry someone else from within the tribe. This tribal social mentality, though contradictory to Islamic values, has persisted in many Arab societies with tribal structures, including the Libyan society.
In the s with Libya turning into a rich oil state, the formation of larger cities and more women becoming well-educated, the closed mentality of tribal marriages decreased, but it was very much alive in criticizing the marriages of Libyan men to non-Libyan women and in censuring the marriages of Libyan women to non-Libyan men.
Call for Libyan Cultural Actors: Info sessions on #AFAC North Africa Funding Programme at Tripoli on the 20 and 21st July. 20th July from 9AM to 5PM.
The sheikh has documented the destruction of more than Sufi cultural sites across Libya over the past decade. Since NATO-backed rebels ousted longtime ruler Muammar Gaddafi in , chaos and a lack of security in Libya, combined with the rise of extremist Islamist groups, has led to an uptick in attacks on Sufi sites, say scholars and heritage groups.
Islamic State militants have torn down ancient sites in Syria and Iraq with bulldozers and explosives. Both sides of the current civil war between the U. Besides the standard prayers, Sufi devotions include singing hymns, chanting the names of God or dancing to heighten awareness of the divine. Since , Libyans for the most part stopped marking the occasion, which is viewed as idolatrous by extremist groups, including the ultra-conservative Madkhali-Salafists.
The group has been increasingly active in the country since fighting began in , forming a strategic alliance with commander Haftar, explained Claudia Gazzini, a Libya analyst with the International Crisis Group think-tank. Gazzini noted that Sufi sites have also been destroyed by other Islamist factions, especially those affiliated with al Qaeda. Despite the fatwas and continued demolitions, in November , for the first time in years, big Mawlid celebrations took place in multiple cities, including Tripoli and Sirte, before it was taken over by the LNA.
When a series of Sufi sites were targeted by unknown armed groups in August – including ancient shrines in Zliten and the port city of Misrata, and a mosque containing the tomb of a Sufi saint in Tripoli – the Libyan government condemned the acts. Successive interim governments, however, have mainly remained silent on the systematic attacks, said Hanan Salah, a senior researcher on Libya with advocacy group Human Rights Watch. The targeting of Sufi heritage in Libya predates the current conflict, said Pack, whose research focuses on Sanusi sufism.
Mohamed Faraj Mohamed, chairman of the GNA Department of Antiquities, said that Sufi heritage is an important aspect of Libyan heritage and authorities are in the process of documenting national historical monuments, including Sufi sites.